Broadbridge notes however that "with all the evidence suppressed, this can only be a surmise". According to some sources, Tolui sacrificed his own life, accepting a poisoned drink in shamanist ritual in order to save Ögedei who was suffering from illness. Tolui volunteered and died directly after consuming a cursed drink. It was the rivalry between Tolui's own sons, Kublai and Ariq Böke, that fragmented the power of the empire and set the western khanates against each other in the Toluid Civil War between 1260 and 1264. Some time after 1235 another Mongol force invaded Kashmir, stationing a darughachi there for several years. Ögedei erected several houses of worship for his Buddhist, Muslim, Taoist, and Christian followers. Broadbridge and De Rachewiltz questioned the factual accuracy of this identification with the Oirats. The defenders of Nishapur killed Toquchar, the brother-in-law of Tolui in November 1220. As an adult, he was known for his ability to sway doubters in any debate in which he was involved, simply by the force of his personality. The cities in this area had revolted several times. The name of the tribe is unclear in two manuscripts of Juvayni but Manuscript D and Rashid-Al-Din give it as Oirat. The first three of these would all go on to claim the title of Great Khan, while Hulagu founded the Ilkhanate and Kublai the Yuan dynasty of China. After passing the summer in the north, they again campaigned against the Jin in Henan, cutting through territory of South China to assault the Jin's rear. Another column then advanced against Gaian, ruled by Prince Avak.  This move brought the Oirat and their lands under Ögedei's control following the death of Ögedei's sister Checheyigen, who previously controlled Oirat lands..
 Chagatai continued to support his younger brother's claim. However, other accounts suggest Tolui died of alcoholism. Through his Nestorian Christian wife Sorghaghtani Beki, Tolui fathered Möngke, Kublai, Ariq Böke, and Hulagu. However, Ata-Malik Juvayni says he died from alcoholism. Ögedei began the bureaucratization of Mongol administration. Attached were private apartments, while in front of stood a giant stone tortoise bearing an engraved pillar, like those that were commonly used in East Asia. Ogedei died at the age of 56 by Chinese historical standards (55 by modern western standards) in 1241, meaning he was born in 1186.
Ögedei had nominated his grandson Shiremun as his heir, but Güyük eventually succeeded him after the five-year regency of his widow Töregene Khatun. Tolui was awarded the title of Khagan by his son Möngke and was given a temple name (Chinese: 元睿宗; pinyin: Yuán Ruìzōng; Wade–Giles: Jui-Tsung) by his other son Kublai, when he established the Yuan dynasty a few decades later.
Möngke posthumously awarded his father the title of Khagan in 1252.  In 1203, His father bestowed on Tolui his wife Sorghaghtani, the niece of Ong Khan (a friend of Tolui's grandfather Yesugei). A number of anecdotes evince a tone of ridicule for Ögedei's lack of self-control. From there, he sent armies into the regions of Fars and Kirman, whose rulers quickly submitted, preferring to pay tribute to Mongol overlords rather than having their states ravaged. Tolui's line ruled Mongolia and south Mongolia from 1251 to 1635, Mongolia until 1691, and Bukhara until 1920.
Ögedei was well known for his alcoholism. Their first son Möngke was born in 1209. The Empress Yisui insisted that Genghis Khan designate an heir before the invasion of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219. This was quoted in Rashid-Al-Din and noted by Weatherford. After taking several cities, the Mongols, with the belated assistance of the Song dynasty, destroyed the Jin with the fall of Caizhou in February 1234. Two armies had been dispatched to besiege Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. According to his father's wish, Ilugei, the commander of the Jalayir, became Ögedei's tutor. The Emperor urged his relatives build residences nearby and settled the deported craftsmen from China near the site. Chormaqan waited until 1238, when the force of Möngke Khan was also active in the north Caucasus. In 1231, he led his army southward and quickly captured the cities of Qum and Hamadan. He also divided the empire into Beshbalik and Yanjing administration, while the headquarters in Karakorum directly dealt with Manchuria, Mongolia and Siberia.
Weatherford calls it "the most horrendous crime of his twelve-year reign and one of the worst Mongol atrocities recorded". His charisma was partially credited for his success in keeping the Mongol Empire on the path that his father had set. With the Mongols already in control of Persia, Jalal al-Din was isolated in Transcaucasia where he was banished. Chagatai entrusted an official to watch his habit, but Ögedei managed to drink anyway. However, Mongol and Persian chroniclers criticize Ögedei for a crime he committed in 1237 which violated the laws of his father, Genghis Khan, which forbade seizure, rape, kidnapping, bartering, or selling young girls, who were allowed to be married at a young age but could not engage in sexual activity until the age of sixteen.
Offering land, animals, and people had only led to an aggravation of Ögödei's illness, but when they offered to sacrifice a family member, Ögödei got better immediately. The Mongol forces sent against him in 1227 were defeated at Dameghan. Genghis Khan died in 1227, and Jochi had died a year or two earlier. In 1221, Genghis Khan dispatched him to Khorasan in Iran.  Like all Mongols at his time, he was raised and educated as a warrior from childhood, and as the son of Genghis Khan, he was a part of his father's plan to establish a world empire. Tolui[a] (c.1191–1232) was the fourth son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun Börte.  This entire chapter was later copied verbatim by Rashid Al-Din into his early 14th century Jami' Al-Tawarikh (Compendium of Chronicles) albeit in a slightly abridged version. There was a castle with doors like the gates of the garden and a series of lakes where many water fowl gathered. Other articles where Tolui is discussed: Mongol: Rise of the Mongol empire: …Xinjiang and western Mongolia; and Tolui was awarded eastern Mongolia. The Death of Tolui in Imperial Mongol Historiography Geoff Humble, University of Leeds Tolui (c.1186-c.1232), fourth and youngest son of Činggis Qa’an (c.1162-1227) by his senior wife Börte (c.1161-c.1206).
 Around the same time, a Kashmiri Buddhist master, Otochi, and his brother Namo arrived at the court of Ögedei. Notwithstanding reports of his charisma, Ögedei was criticized by Mongol and Persian chroniclers for a crime he committed in 1237, which according to Persian chroniclers consisted of ordering the rape of four thousand Oirat girls above the age of seven.
Perhaps more important than himself was the role of his family, the Toluids, in shaping the destinies of the Mongol Empire. He was a physically big, jovial, and charismatic man, who seemed mostly to be interested in enjoying good times.  Relay stations were set up every 25 miles and the yam staff supplied remounts to the envoys and served specified rations. Richard Ernest Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt Dupuy, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Timothy May-Mongol Empire: Chormaquan and the Mongol Conquest of the Middle East. , The above account, including the assumption that Mongol sources criticized the crime (still questionable), was described in Jack Weatherford's 2011 book The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire. During the rise of Genghis Khan, Tolui was too young to be involved in the battles.
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